Environmental stressors like extreme heat and management factors such as movement to new barns or housing units can cause a breakdown in an animal’s natural defenses. That’s when mycotoxins like trichothecenes (T-2 and deoxynivalenol (DON)) can infiltrate internal systems and cause sometimes severe — even fatal — damage when left unchecked.
Heat, energy, water and oxygen: they’re four essential elements critical to just about every form of life on the planet. Provided those things, even the most infinitesimally small organisms can flourish. In the case of mycotoxin-producing molds, that vigor can become costly for livestock producers. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that are produced by mold in stored grain or growing plants. The production of mycotoxins is essentially a defensive response by the growing mold triggered by an environmental factor, like temperature, oxygen, pH or moisture.
Managing mycotoxin contaminated feed ingredients is a constant challenge for animal producers. Mycotoxins are produced by both field and storage molds, and – even when fed at low levels – can have a detrimental impact on livestock and poultry performance. To make matters worse, grains are frequently contaminated with multiple mycotoxins, and research suggests toxic synergies may exist with certain mycotoxin combinations. Absorption of mycotoxins by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may result in immunological dysfunction, malabsorption of nutrients and ultimately, losses in weight and performance.
For livestock and poultry producers, grain quality has been an increasing concern during 2019. The quality concerns with the 2018-2019 corn crop were well known even before the harvest finished. The cold, wet growing conditions during 2018 were ideal for the growth of mold and wild yeast and ultimately, the formation of harmful mycotoxins. Kemin Customer Laboratory Services (CLS) analyzes corn from all over the U.S. each year. Valuable information is gained from the samples submitted and is summarized in this report.
After the winter polar vortex and the floods of spring, we are ready for summer. To consumers, summer means sunshine, baseball, fishing and ice cream. For producers, however, hot humid weather means heat stress, which can negatively impact performance of livestock and poultry and decrease profitability of your business. One method used to counter decreased feed intake associated with summer heat stress is to include supplemental fats and oils in animal rations which increase the energy density and palatability of diets. But oxidation – a major source of decreased fat quality – also speeds up with summer heat. Do you have a plan to protect your supplemental fats and oils from oxidation this summer?
What causes fats to oxidize? Time of storage, application of heat and the mixing of different lipid sources all have an impact on fat quality, and specifically on influencing oxidation. Oxidation is an irreversible, naturally-occurring process where fatty acids are attacked by free radicals resulting in production of harmful byproducts, including peroxides and aldehydes. This process reduces the energy value of the fat and can have deleterious effects on growth performance. Once oxidation starts, the damage cannot be undone, so preventing oxidation should be a top priority for producers.
The corn growing season in 2018 was very similar to 2017 across much of the U.S. – nearly ideal. There were pockets in the southern corn belt which experienced drought and the northeast states had too much rain, but overall the growing season was excellent for another bin-busting crop. Then, in September, just as the harvest started, the rain started. In the Northeast, where the growing season was saturated with rain, the fall was a continuation of excessive rain. In the Upper Midwest, harvest delays pushed the completion of harvest well into December as growers waited for fields to dry.
Delayed harvest of corn and soybeans in 2018 across the midwestern U.S. are raising concerns about grain quality and how well this crop will store long term. With commercial grain facilities holding a large carryover from the big 2017 crop, some 2017 carry-over corn and much of the 2018 corn crop will end up in outdoor piles again. Managing grain in outdoor piles was the subject of a previous grain operations article. This article focuses on managing stored corn and soybeans long term in permanent structures such as bins, silos, tanks and horizontal sheds where managers have more tools available, including coring, controlled aeration, temperature and moisture monitoring, and partial unloading.
Mycotoxins are toxic and/or carcinogenic molecules produced by growing fungi, specifically the various mold species which grow on plants. The toxigenic fungi involved in the human and animal food chains belong mainly to three genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Each of these molds can produce more than one toxin and some toxins are produced by more than one mold. Once we have mycotoxins in our crop, what options exist for livestock and poultry producers?
The 2018 corn harvest season will certainly remain in our memory for a long time. Drought conditions during the summer in the southern corn belt, along with flooding in the north, had many forecasters wondering if we would have another record large corn crop in the U.S.A. This all changed in September when, according the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), we experienced the third wettest September on record.
The hot summer weather is beginning to wind down now – but it’s always a good time to ask, “how is my fat looking?” Monitoring the quality of your incoming fat sources is the primary step in effective fat management. The impacts of oxidation are irreversible, so it is crucial to begin with high-quality fat and then maintain that quality. Oxidized fat that has been negatively impacted by heat, light and oxygen can have a damaging impact on your animals. This impact can be seen across performance, health and nutrition through decreased growth, immunity challenges, loss of energy content in the fat itself and an array of other issues.
On August 3, 2018, China reported its first case of African Swine Fever (ASF). The first outbreak of the deadly disease (found in the country’s northeast region), was a wake-up call for the North American pork industry. As expected, China immediately implemented a number of restrictions and management tactics to contain the spread of the disease. However, as history has shown, despite good management practices, the spread of disease can still occur – even across oceans.
Knowing the quality of the components going into your livestock feed is crucial to the success of your operation. Most formulation software packages assign standard nutritional values for the components in a diet. But, what happens when the quality of these components does not match that assigned by the software program? You may not see the impact of nutritional variability of the diet in your day-to-day livestock performance, but it can ultimately manifest itself in feed intake, daily gain and animal health over time.
Water. It is a major part of our everyday lives. It is one of the most essential components to our survival, and we take our access to a clean and safe water supply very seriously. The question is, do we put that same amount of emphasis on the quality of water we are providing to our livestock and poultry? Is the quality good enough to make you want to drink from your animals’ waterer?
Livestock and poultry producers are all aware of the presence of potentially-harmful mycotoxins in grain. It seems every day there is a new report declaring the newest hot spot for mycotoxin contamination. So, why does it suddenly feel like mycotoxins are found everywhere? A large reason for the increased focus on mycotoxin contamination is reporting. There is a growing database related to the detrimental impact that even low levels of mycotoxins can have on livestock production. With this increased awareness, the focus now shifts to signs and symptoms of mycotoxin contamination and what producers can do to mitigate their impact.
Feed represents the largest expense in the yearly budget for livestock and poultry producers. To control feed costs, feed ingredient buyers often seek the best price for these inputs. The best price for feed ingredients may not always be the best value. The quality of individual feed ingredients delivered to livestock and poultry production complexes need to be more fully scrutinized to determine the value of individual ingredients. The quality of feed components should be subject to review by purchasing staff; however, to ensure quality is monitored closely, purchasing and production staff must be closely aligned. Feed ingredient buyers need to be aware of quality when purchasing the feed ingredients for a livestock and poultry operation. The profitability of the business depends on it.
If you asked any farmer, they would agree that harvest is one of the best times of the year. Nothing brings that overwhelming feeling of satisfaction quite like watching the combine hopper fill with the fruits of their labor. During this time of "harvest celebration" it may be easy for one to think all the work is done. However, when it comes to maintaining the quality of grain after harvest, the work hasn't even started.
Times are changing for swine and poultry producers. Driven by consumer demands, animal production practices are now seeing a reduction in the amount of antibiotics used. With this reduction in antibiotic usage, producers are discovering a new set of management challenges which can have implications on animal health and performance. When using medications, at times, feed and water quality problems can be disguised. However, in today's production systems, those previously low priority concerns are now becoming increasingly important issues.
Vitamins are essential for animal growth, health, reproduction and performance. Factors such as temperature, oxygen, light and catalysts can all negatively impact vitamin stability in feed. Preservation of vitamins in the feed matrix can be accomplished through the addition of an antioxidant. For the best vitamin protection, an antioxidant system like ENDOX®, which includes a blend of oxygen and free radical scavenging antioxidants and metal chelators, should be used.
The purpose of this floor pen trial was to evaluate the ability of a natural zeolite clay feed additive (KALLSIL™) to lessen the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on turkey hen poult performance. Based on the results of this study, inclusion of KALLSIL may support overall performance of turkey hen poults, particularly when using feed grains, which may contain dietary mycotoxins.
One of the biggest costs associated with manufacturing broiler feed is the cost of pelleting. The advantages of pelleting feed are well known in the feed industry, and the cost of pelleting is more than covered by the improvements in performance and efficiency. This piece summarizes the evaluation of MillSAVOR™ Liquid Concentrate in a poultry feed mill in the United States.
Oxidation effects on lipid quality can be a major factor in the reduction of livestock and poultry feed quality. Lipid oxidation is an irreversible, naturally occurring process where fatty acids are attacked by free radicals and oxygen is absorbed. Oxidation dramatically affects the quality of fats and oils, which has been shown to have direct impacts on animal health and performance.
Fat Tank Case Study
Fat quality solutions start with the purchasing of quality fat. However, high-quality fat can be negatively impacted by storage time, application of heat and the mixing of different lipid sources in a fat tank. Management practices often focus on minimizing storage time, but unfortunately this practice does not account for the layer of fat coating the inside of the tank and sludge buildup at the bottom. Treating fat with a RENDOX antioxidant system can preserve fat and help clean and stabilize your fat storage tank.
If you have a question about our products or services, or just want more information, fill out the form below and someone on our team will be in contact with you.