Choline plays an important role in the metabolism of fat from the liver. In transition dairy cows, supplemental choline can positively impact production and health. Rumen protected choline products have been developed to protect degradation of the choline in the rumen, allowing more choline to be intestinally available to transition dairy cows.
Dairy cattle transitioning to lactation experience a negative energy balance. Negative energy balance is considered normal for cows starting lactation because a cow cannot eat enough dry matter to meet energy demands. The lack of dry matter causes body reserves to mobilize, resulting in excess levels of non-esterified fatty acids.
CholiPEARL® is a cost-effective source of rumen protected choline manufactured using the MicroPEARLS® spray freezing process. This manufacturing method results in a product that combines rumen protection with high intestinal digestibility, resulting in one of the most cost-effective sources of intestinally available choline on the market.
KemTRACE® Chromium – the first product of its kind on the market – is a safe, proven trace mineral for use in swine, dairy, beef and broiler operations. This highly bioavailable, organic source of chromium helps improve glucose utilization for increased cellular energy and function. This results in better animal maintenance, reproduction, growth and immunity.
The dietary trace element, chromium, is necessary to optimize the activation of the insulin receptor so more glucose can get into the cell. Adding supplemental KemTRACE® Chromium to the diet provides the additional chromium for insulin receptor activation.
A field trial was conducted on an 800-cow Holstein dairy in southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the effect of chromium propionate on reproductive performance. An increase in pregnancy rate was observed that was driven by an increase in conception rates.
The research with chromium in dairy cattle since the turn of the century has shown chromium supplementation is beneficial for improving milk yield in transition cows, maintaining milk yield in heat-stressed cows and enhancing reproductive performance in dairy cows.
A field trial was conducted at a dairy in the Central Valley region of California. Approximately 500 cows in second or greater lactation in the high producing group (60-120 DIM) were used. The objective was to determine if chromium propionate had a benefit to dairy cows in early to peak lactation.
Forty-eight Holsteins entering second or greater lactation were used to determine milk production, DMI and metabolic responses to chromium propionate supplementation through the periparturient period and starch source in postpartum.
Heat stress can compromise a lactating cow's performance in many different ways – decreased feed intake, altered metabolism, reduced milk production, impaired reproductive performance and increased disease incidence. In the U.S., approximately $1 billion is lost annually as a result of poor performance during periods of heat stress. The inability of a cow to dissipate heat effectively compromises their ability to function normally all the way down to the molecular level.
There are a variety of situations in an animal's life when nutrient utilization is re-prioritized from productive towards agriculturally unproductive purposes. Two well-known examples that markedly reduce production are heat stress and ketosis. Decreased feed intake, experienced during both diseases, is unable to fully explain decreases in productivity. Additionally, both diseases are characterized by negative energy balance, body weight loss, inflammation and hepatic steatosis.
There are a variety of situations in an animal's life when nutrient utilization is re-prioritized from productive towards agriculturally unproductive purposes. Two well-known examples that markedly reduce production are heat stress and ketosis. Decreased feed intake, experienced during both diseases, is unable to fully explain decreases in productivity. Additionally, both diseases are characterized by negative energy balance, body weight loss, inflammation and hepatic steatosis. While the metabolism of ketosis and heat stress have been thoroughly studied for the last 40 years, the initial insult in the cascade of events ultimately reducing productivity in both heat stressed and ketotic cows has not been identified. The focus of the presentation is to review practical management strategies that can be used to help mitigate the impact of heat stress.
Heat stress and ketosis reduce efficiency. Decreased feed intake experienced during both situations is unable to fully explain the suboptimal productivity. Heat stress and ketosis affect herds of all sizes and almost every dairy region of the U.S. Dr. Baumgard hypothesizes the common etiological origin of both metabolic disorders as "leaky gut." Leaky gut and the resulting endotoxin infiltration alter nutrient partitioning and is a causative agent in metabolic disruption during heat stress and ketosis. Identifying dietary approaches that can improve gut barrier dysfunction is paramount in developing nutritional strategies aimed at improving intestinal health.
A study was conducted with sixty-one (61) multiparous Holstein cows to determine the effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on immunity and subclinical endometritis.
Dairy cows experience frequent immune challenges, as bacterial insults can originate from many different situations. Economic consequences of sickness are decreased milk, inefficient feed utilization, poor reproduction and increased health costs. An activated immune system requires energy in the form of glucose and the literature suggests glucose homeostasis is disrupted during an endotoxin challenge.
QUALITY & SAFETY
The first of its kind. The first in its class. KemTRACE® Chromium – the first product of its kind on the market – is a safe, proven trace mineral for use in swine, dairy, beef and broiler operations. It has been fed to millions of animals around the world since its introduction in 2000. KemTRACE Chromium is registered in more than 30 countries and is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-reviewed form of chromium propionate.
Federal regulations, food recalls and front page headlines have dramatically increased the importance of ingredient safety and supplier accountability in the global food chain. Producers must now consider the immeasureable financial impact and irreparable damage to reputation that compromised ingredients and supplier uncertainty can have on their operation. With every purchasing decision, a producer must weigh the importance of brand credibility and confidence in sourcing consistent, high-quality ingredients.
Ingredient quality control is at the forefront of helping customers avoid unnecessary risk. Kemin utilizes standard operating procedures for supplier and ingredient certifications/approvals prior to purchase and use of ingredients. Understanding the importance of high consumer confidence and the impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act, Kemin pursued, received and maintains the Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) 22000 for its manufacturing facility in Des Moines, Iowa.
CHROMIUM IN THE NEWS
Understanding the relationship between stress, immunity and reproductive herd health is paramount to discovering nutritional management best practices for your dairy herd. Chromium supplementation primarily acts to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the release of stress hormones, both of which enhance reproductive health.
Ohio State researchers list the following nine trace minerals as being needed by dairy cattle: chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Chromium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism by stabilizing insulin receptors that allow glucose to enter the cell.
Supplementation of dairy cattle diets with chromium propionate has considerable potential to improve glucose and NEFA metabolism, dry matter intake and milk yield, particularly in transition cows. Improvements in glucose and NEFA metabolism also have implications for better reproduction and reduced health incidences.
USA Lysine® and MetiPEARL™ are manufactured to have a precise specific gravity and particle size leading to rapid transit through the rumen, reducing microbial exposure. The result is that these rumen protected amino acid products combine a high level of rumen escape and intestinal release, which results in bioavailability values that make them cost-effective sources of MP Lysine and MP Methionine.
Making a purchase in today's economic climate requires and in-depth examination of the product's feature and benefits. From functionality to price, focusing on just one or two characteristics doesn't provide the complete picture and this is especially true when comparing rumen protected methionine products. While some products may have advantages in cetrain areas, it's important to gauge a product's efficacy on the sum of all of the product's characteristics.
Specific gravity and particle size are the primary factors in determining the rumen retention time in dairy cows. USA Lysine® is manufactured to have the precise specific gravity and particle size, which leads to rapid transit through the rumen, reducing microbial exposure. USA Lysine has the ideal size and specific gravity, resulting in a combination of a high level of rumen escape with industry leading intestinal digestibility.
Metabolizable energy (ME) and metabolizable protein (MP) requirements of a dairy cow are influenced by production level, lactation number, body weight and breed. The following data provides a guideline for ME, MP Lysine and MP Methionine required by cows in various situations.
WHY RUMEN PROTECTED LYSINE?
Blood meal is heated and dried while being processed. During this time, Maillard reactions occur binding sugars to amino groups, reducing the digestibility and availability of nitrogen or amino acids such as lysine. It is impossible to determine the extent of the damage without testing in the laboratory.
Variation in the digestibility of protein and amino acids contained in feed ingredients has a direct impact on production and profitability. One way to evaluate this impact is by determining the opportunity cost (the loss of potential profit) when feeding a poor quality, low digestibility feed instead of a good quality or highly digestible one. Learn more about the impact of variability on your profits.
Since 2015, Kemin has collected and tested over 70 blood meal samples from customers across the United States. The nitrogen (N) digestibility of those samples range from 21% to 97%. This means up to 79% of the nitrogen in the blood meal may not be digested by the animal and is simply excreted into the environment.
VIDEO: Maillard Reaction
VIDEO: Blood Meal Variability
VIDEO: Fill the Gap
VIDEO: USA Lysine® Particle Size and Specific Gravity
VIDEO: Miner Institute
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