Bacteria are one of the major microbes present in poultry. While many bacteria are harmless, there are some pathogenic bacteria which can be detrimental to bird health and performance. Pathogenic bacteria present in poultry can be broadly classified into two categories. For a producer, these two different bacteria categories should both be addressed to make sure that the birds are performing well during the growth period and food safety is also supported.
All healthy animals’ gastrointestinal tract has one big thing in common: balance. A harmony and equilibrium exist between the microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells which carry out the digestive and absorptive function and the immune cells which carry out disease prevention and protection. Whenever this balance is disturbed, the health and performance of the animal is affected accordingly.
Gut health is important throughout an animal’s life. But it’s particularly important early in life when gut health contributes to the development of a number of critical systems and functions including the gut itself. Poor gut health — which can be brought on by an array of microbial, social, environmental and physiological stressors — can lead to systemic health problems and reduced performance throughout an animal’s life.
Historically, tannins were considered a double-edged sword in poultry diets. Sometimes known for their bitter taste, tannins have traditionally been thought of as anti-nutritional factors in poultry diets. However, growing attention on the development of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics among consumers has led to increased interest in evaluating alternative ingredients – including tannins – in poultry diets.
Coccidiosis in poultry has historically been managed with chemical anticoccidials and ionophore antibiotics. However, concerns about decreasing sensitivity of Eimeria to current anticoccidials combined with the recent rise in antibiotic free (ABF) production has created a renewed industry-wide focus on identifying alternative strategies – like coccidiosis vaccination – to manage this ubiquitous poultry disease.
Antibiotic-free (ABF) poultry and livestock production has evolved across species and regionally throughout the past decade as new and better antibiotic alternatives gain popularity and consumer demand increases. Today, approximately 60% of U.S. broiler production is now antibiotic free, and the broiler industry has paved the way for ABF production in other species. Overall, ABF production is expected to continue to grow.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a highly complex system which includes the structural intestinal epithelial barrier, a diverse commensal gut microbiota and a robust mucosal immune system. Crosstalk between these interrelated systems has a major influence on host physiology and metabolism. Imbalances in any of the three components can lead to negative gut health effects, such as poor nutrient absorption, diarrhea and more. Fortunately, by using proper management strategies, producers can keep these three gut health components in equilibrium, thereby helping birds stay healthy and productive.
Coccidiosis is a complex, formidable challenge for broiler producers, especially those in antibiotic-free (ABF) systems. Historically managed with anticoccidial chemical drugs and antibiotics, two industry trends — the rise in ABF production and efforts to sustain the efficacy of available ionophore and chemical anticoccidials — have a growing number of producers looking to vaccines and other products to help control the parasitic disease that’s virtually ubiquitous in many production environments.
Poultry producers know a healthy gut is critical for optimal performance. Unfortunately, managing enteric challenges – like coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis – in antibiotic-free production systems is anything but easy. To protect poultry from disease, using feed additives – like tannins – that offer a wide-range of potential benefits for optimal gut health is key.
Turkey production is a critical component of the overall consumer food supply chain. Ensuring the efficient production of healthy birds — and the continued viability of turkey producers around the world — depends on prudent farm-level management, including minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) challenges to maximize productivity and feed efficiency.
The gastrointestinal system of a chicken can have a major influence on the bird’s overall health and productivity in ways that stretch well beyond the gut. Though a lot remains to be discovered about the many connections between the gastrointestinal tract and other internal systems, increasing scientific knowledge of costly bone and joint disorders — including one commonly called “kinky back” — is helping researchers develop products to enable producers to minimize economic and flock-health damage through management and preventative measures.
Involved in over 30 metabolic reactions, vitamins are essential for animal growth, health, reproduction and performance. But, for animals to appropriately utilize essential vitamins for metabolism, effective vitamin absorption is critical. When considering vitamin absorption, factors like gut health, vitamin form and vitamin solubility can significantly influence absorption. To maximize vitamin absorption, understanding how these factors can influence vitamin availability for absorption is key.
Antibiotics have long been a key component of effective disease control in human beings and animals alike. However, growing concerns about overuse and sustaining the efficacy of antibiotics among consumers has led to sweeping changes in the poultry industry.
When it comes to the performance of a production herd or flock, the source, quantity, quality and composition of water can have a major impact on how animals perform. Not only should water be available in sufficient quantities, but it should have the right balance in pH and minerals and other components in order to maximize digestive function, gut health and overall animal performance.
Though it’s only been known in the chicken industry for around a decade, woody breast condition (WBC) has already proven to be a potentially costly issue for an industry tasked with feeding a growing global human population. Though the primary triggers of the condition are well-known, solutions are difficult to reach for an industry facing high production demand.
More than 50 billion chickens enter the human food supply every year, and that number is expected to grow in the next decade to meet increasing food demand as world population continues to rise. The industry has responded to that growing demand; in the last five years alone, world broiler meat production has risen from 86.76 to 92.47 million metric tons per year, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service. Chicken as a human protein source alone has grown by 80 percent in the last decade, much faster than beef or pork.
A healthy gastrointestinal (GI) tract can help poultry achieve optimal production of meat or eggs. The GI tract for chicken has two essential functions: digestion/absorption and immunity. The intestinal mucosa provides an efficient barrier between unfriendly luminal content and the host's internal tissues. A cohesive alliance between the mucus layer, epithelial cells, microbiota and immune cells in the intestine is critical for the intestinal barrier functions.
The digestive tract of a healthy chick is considered free from microorganisms at hatch. Afterwards, a microbial colonization evolves very quickly. At around 40 days in age, the microbiota becomes fully developed in birds, and the bacteria can be categorized as commensal or pathogenic. The bacterial population within broilers is very diverse comprised of over 900 species.
In livestock and poultry production, inflammation reduces profitability and product quality and endangers the health of the animals. Inflammation can occur in intensive, modern animal production systems. Controlling inflammation increases the likelihood of a positive ROI regarding feed conversion. As a result, commonly used antimicrobials in feed are now a proposed mode of action (MOA) to reduce instances of inflammation occurrence.
Minimizing the susceptibility to disease challenges early on in an animal's life can have an effect on their ability to gain weight faster, convert feed more efficiently and overall animal health. Aleta™, a source of 1,3-beta glucans, is an ingredient that may enhance host protective immunity (mucosal and systemic immunity) by improving the effector functions of immune cells.
ButiPEARL is an encapsulated source of butyric acid manufactured using a proprietary spray-freezing process. MicroPEARLS® spray-freezing technology allows for slow release in the gastrointestinal tract, promoting an efficient use of butyric acid. The encapsulation process also greatly reduces the odor typically associated with butyric acid.
This trial was conducted with broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding an encapsulated source of butyric acid, ButiPEARL®, in broiler diets from 1 to 42 d of age. ButiPEARL was included in diets at 100g, 200g and 300g and each level showed an improvement in feed conversion ratio over the control diet.
Broilers supplemented with an encapsulated source of butyric acid, ButiPEARL®, at increasing inclusion levels saw a linear upward trend which included an increase in body weight gain and improvement in feed conversion compared to control diets at the end of 42 days.
ButiPEARL Z combines two powerful molecules — butyric acid and zinc — to help improve intestinal health and performance in livestock and poultry. The proprietary MicroPEARLS® encapsulation technology behind ButiPEARL Z allows for timely release throughout the animal's upper and lower GI tract. Encapsulation also allows for superior handling by reducing odor and dust.
Comparison of the bioavailability of different zinc sources can help determine if zinc can be utilized by the animal. This study was conducted to determine how much zinc is available in a butyric acid and zinc-combined product.
In order to determine the proper feeding level of butyric acid and zinc for broilers, Kemin conducted a feeding trial to measure the benefits in broiler diets. With increasing levels of butyric acid and zinc, it was determined a 1 pound inclusion to 1 ton of feed provided the best benefit of butyric acid and zinc to broilers.
ButiPEARL Z has been shown to improve growth performance of broilers in previous trial work. The present study evaluated the impact of ButiPEARL Z on performance parameters, gut integrity and meat quality during heat stress in male broiler chickens reared to 47 days of age.
The Bacillus subtilis PB6 in CLOSTAT® has been found to secrete one or more biocidal proteins that are inhibitory towards certain strains of pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp. These proteins disrupt the membrane of bacteria, causing leakage of the cell contents and ultimately killing the pathogenic bacteria without harming the beneficial gut microflora.
The results of this study indicate Bacillus subtilis PB6 was effective in addressing the negative effects of necrotic enteritis. Bacillus subtilis PB6 was not as effective as salinomycin but a good alternative for systems unable to use salinomycin.
Vitamins are essential for animal growth, health, reproduction and performance. Factors such as temperature, oxygen, light and catalysts can all negatively impact vitamin stability in feed. Preservation of vitamins in the feed matrix can be accomplished through the addition of an antioxidant. For the best vitamin protection, an antioxidant system like ENDOX®, which includes a blend of oxygen and free radical scavenging antioxidants and metal chelators, should be used.
The most common reason for customers to return bagged feed is mold. Even when care is taken to ensure all ingredients are dry and only the highest quality raw materials are sourced, mold can become an issue once the feed is bagged and shipped. The three most common reasons for mold growth are heat, moisture and time — and bags are the perfect environment for all three.
The purpose of this floor pen trial was to evaluate the ability of a natural zeolite clay feed additive (KALLSIL®) to lessen the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on turkey hen poult performance. Based on the results of this study, inclusion of KALLSIL may support overall performance of turkey hen poults, particularly when using feed grains, which may contain dietary mycotoxins.
High-quality drinking water is essential to animal health and performance, so providing clean water should be a top priority for producers. Organic acids can be used to control, inhibit and eliminate bacteria in drinking water, reducing pathogen exposure to the upper gastrointestinal tract of the animal. KEM SAN provides an effective blend of key organic acids with proven efficacy against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria.
Oxidation effects on lipid quality can be a major factor in the reduction of livestock and poultry feed quality. Lipid oxidation is an irreversible, naturally occurring process where fatty acids are attacked by free radicals and oxygen is absorbed. Oxidation dramatically affects the quality of fats and oils, which has been shown to have direct impacts on animal health and performance.
Fat Tank Case Study
Fat quality solutions start with the purchasing of quality fat. However, high-quality fat can be negatively impacted by storage time, application of heat and the mixing of different lipid sources in a fat tank. Management practices often focus on minimizing storage time, but unfortunately this practice does not account for the layer of fat coating the inside of the tank and sludge buildup at the bottom. Treating fat with a RENDOX antioxidant system can preserve fat and help clean and stabilize your fat storage tank.
Contaminated feed has been recognized as a source of infections pathogens and poses a risk for those raising livestock and poultry to produce meat, milk and eggs. Legislation such as the Food Safety Modernization Act focuses on feed, pet food and ingredient facilities that process, pack, manufacture or hold feed to identify hazards and to have a plan to control those hazards.
Keeping pathogens at bay is the first step to an effective on-farm biosecurity program. An often-overlooked aspect in biosecurity planning, however, is the role of feed. Feed and feed ingredients may carry pathogens that are detrimental to animal health and welfare. That's where Sal CURB® ASF Liquid Antimicrobial comes in. Sal CURB is a key component of a comprehensive feed biosecurity and pathogen control program.
Formaldehyde is a natural chemical necessary for life. It is a colorless, strong-smelling gas and is referred to as formalin when used in water-based solutions. Formaldehyde is used in products including particle board, household products, glues, permanent press fabrics, paper product coatings, fiberboard and plywood. It is also widely used as an industrial fungicide, germicide and disinfectant.
VANNIX™ C4 features a unique blend of natural, phytogenic molecules - including tannins - and a spore-forming direct-fed active microbial. Research has shown that the synergistic ingredient combination in VANNIX C4 may help reduce the impact of pathogens on poultry intestinal integrity, thereby supporting optimal performance.
Evaluation of a Proprietary Blend of Natural, Intestinal Health Ingredients to Reduce the Effects of Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers Raised on Litter
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of C4 Blend to reduce the effects of NE on performance and mortality of broilers raised on litter to 42 days of age.
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