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Dairy cows are constantly at risk of immune challenges such as Escherichia coli mastitis, Salmonella infections, mycotoxin insults and harmful pathogens. The impact of even a minor immune challenge can be significant to your production and profitability, including:

KemTRACE Chromium for Dairy Immunity Challenges

Immunity challenges = profit volatility

To combat an immune challenge, an activated immune system requires four pounds of glucose over a 24-hour period.1 This means the glucose typically utilized for milk production, reproduction or maintenance will instead be redirected to help tackle the immune challenge, ultimately impacting your profitability

How does this affect your bottom line? Let's put it into perspective.

Each kilogram (kg) of milk production requires 72 grams of glucose. Therefore, four pounds of glucose (1.8 kg) redirected to immune response could equal up to 55 pounds of milk yield loss in 24 hours.

Milk yield loss in 24 hours


1. Boost the defense system against pathogens


Studies show that chromium supplementation can improve the immune function of activated leukocytes, which help serve as the defense system against pathogens.2,3,4


2. Helps clear infections more effectively

Data dive:

Impact of chromium supplementation on neutrophil counts

A recent study evaluated the effect of chromium supplementation on circulating neutrophils following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge or pair-feeding in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Results showed the LPS-challenged cows supplemented with chromium had a 16% increase in their peak neutrophil number relative to the LPS-challenged control cows.


Increased neutrophil proliferation more effectively cleared infections which resulted in fewer cows with subclinical endometritis — a leading cause of reduced first-service insemination conception rates.5

3. Enhances immune response

Data dive:

Impact of chromium supplementation on immune response

Research at Cornell University suggests that supplemental chromium enhanced immune responses in early lactation to bacterial challenges in the uterus by increasing neutrophil proliferation.6


25% increase in neutrophil proliferation and 50% decrease in subclinical endometritis

KemTRACE Chromium Immunity response


KemTRACE® Chromium — the first product of its kind on the market — is a water soluble, highly bioavailable, organic source of chromium propionate that helps stabilize insulin receptors in cattle. This improves glucose utilization for increased energy and proper cell function, resulting in better immunity.

KemTRACE Chromium is supported by more than 20 years of Kemin research and is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-reviewed form of chromium propionate. See the KemTRACE Chromium mode of action at work.

How KemTRACE Chromium Works

Benefits beyond immunity. To further prove the benefits of chromium supplementation, we conducted a thorough meta-analysis of 16 peer-reviewed scientific journals evaluating the benefits of chromium in dairy cows. The numbers speak for themselves. Dive deeper into the full meta-analysis.

Ready to see how KemTRACE Chromium can improve your dairy operation?

Start with these resources.

KemTRACE Chromium Conventional Dairy Im...
Effects of Chromium Propionate Suppleme...
Estimating Glucose Requirements of an A...



1Kvidera, S. K. 2017. Glucose requirements of an activated immune system in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100:3, 2360-2374.
2Moonsie-Shageer, S., and D. N. Mowat. 1993. Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents, and immune status of stressed feeder calves. J. Anim. Sci. 71:232-238.
3Chang, X., B. A. Mallard, and D. N. Mowat. 1996. Effects of chromium on health status, blood neutrophil phagocytosis and in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis of dairy cows. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 52:37-52.
4Lee, D. N., C. F. Weng, H. T. Yen, T. F. Shen, and B. J. Chen. 2000. Effects of chromium supplementation and lipopolysaccharide injection on physiological responses of weanling pigs. Asian-Australasian. J. Anim. Sci. 13:528.534.
5Horst, E. A., S. K. Kvidera, E. J. Mayorga, C. S. Shouse, M. Al-Qaisi, M. J. Dickson, J. Ydstie, H. A. Ramirez, A. F. Keating, D. J. Dickson, K. E. Griswold, and L. H. Baumgard. 2018. Effect of chromium on bioenergetics and leukocyte dynamics following immunoactivation in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 101:1-16.
6Yasui, T., J. A. A. McArt, C. M. Tyan, R. O. Gilbert, D. V. Nydam, F. Valdez, K. E. Griswold, and T. R. Overton. 2014. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:6400-6410.

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