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KemTRACE® Chromium is a highly bioavailable, organic source of chromium that helps stabilize insulin receptors in cattle. This improves glucose utilization for increased energy and proper cell function, resulting in better immunity.

How Often Does an Immune Challenge Occur?

Dairy cows are constantly at risk of being challenged by Escherichia coli mastitis, Salmonella infections, mycotoxin insults and more. The impact of even a minor immune challenge could be significant. In fact, 1/10 of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could result in 2.78 kg of milk loss per day.1 At $15 per hundredweight (cwt), that's 92 cents lost per cow per day.


Animals Experiencing Frequent Immune Challenges May Have:

  • Decreased growth
  • Inefficient feed utilization
  • Poor reproduction
  • Increased health costs

In order to combat an immune challenge, an active immune system requires 4 lbs. of sugar over a 24-hour period. The sugar meant for milk production will instead be used to support this immune function, reducing total milk production and profitability.

What is 1 kg of Glucose Worth in Terms of Milk Yield Performance?


Impact of Chromium on Immunity

Research studies have reported improved immune function of activated leukocytes when animals were supplemented with chromium.2,3,4

A recent study conducted with lactating Holstein cows observed the following:

Figure 1. Effect of chromium supplementation on circulating neutrophils following a LPS challenge or pair-feeding in lactating dairy cows5

Fending Off Infection

Research at Cornell University suggests that:

Increased neutrophil proliferation more effectively cleared infections, which resulted in fewer cows with subclinical endometritis – a leading cause of reduced first service insemination conception rates. Ultimately, improving overall herd reproductive health should contribute to lower veterinary/medical costs, lower improved conception rates, and more optimal milk production.

Table 1. Effect of chromium supplementation on endometrial cytology6

1Neutrophil > 10%

Chromium and Immunity Literature

KemTRACE Chromium Conventional Dairy Im...
Effects of Chromium Propionate Suppleme...
Estimating Glucose Requirements of an A...



1Kvidera, S. K. 2017. Glucose requirements of an activated immune system in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100:3, 2360-2374.
2Moonsie-Shageer, S., and D. N. Mowat. 1993. Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents, and immune status of stressed feeder calves. J. Anim. Sci. 71:232-238.
3Chang, X., B. A. Mallard, and D. N. Mowat. 1996. Effects of chromium on health status, blood neutrophil phagocytosis and in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis of dairy cows. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 52:37-52.
4Lee, D. N., C. F. Weng, H. T. Yen, T. F. Shen, and B. J. Chen. 2000. Effects of chromium supplementation and lipopolysaccharide injection on physiological responses of weanling pigs. Asian-Australasian. J. Anim. Sci. 13:528.534.
5Horst, E. A., S. K. Kvidera, E. J. Mayorga, C. S. Shouse, M. Al-Qaisi, M. J. Dickson, J. Ydstie, H. A. Ramirez, A. F. Keating, D. J. Dickson, K. E. Griswold, and L. H. Baumgard. 2018. Effect of chromium on bioenergetics and leukocyte dynamics following immunoactivation in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 101:1-16.
6Yasui, T., J. A. A. McArt, C. M. Tyan, R. O. Gilbert, D. V. Nydam, F. Valdez, K. E. Griswold, and T. R. Overton. 2014. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:6400-6410.

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