CholiPEARL® -  Rumen Protected Choline for Dairy

CholiPEARL® is a cost-effective source of rumen protected choline manufactured using the MicroPEARLS® spray freezing process. This manufacturing method results in a product that combines rumen protection with high intestinal digestibility, resulting in one of the most cost-effective sources of intestinally available choline on the market. Additionally, CholiPEARL is durable and can handle mixing and pelleting with no negative impact on product efficacy. 

Figure 1. MicroPEARL structure

CholiPEARL®: Rumen Protected Choline for Dairy


Why is Choline Important in Dairy Nutrition?

One of the primary roles of choline is the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an essential component of cell membranes.1 Phosphatidylcholine is required for the synthesis and secretion of molecules known as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the liver. VLDL are important molecules as they are necessary to avoid fat accumulation in the liver.2 Therefore, one of the benefits of choline supplementation in dairy cattle is choline's effects on alleviating the severity and incidence of fatty liver. 

When Should Rumen Protected Choline be Fed?

During the transition period, dairy cows are under stress due to negative energy balance. Thus, body fats are mobilized to supply required energy to the body. Once body fats are transformed into VLDL in the liver, different body tissues can readily absorb the energy. 

Due to the role of choline in VLDL secretion, the recommended period for rumen protected choline application is during the transition period. 

Why Should We Protect Choline?

Choline is needed for normal tissue metabolism and for milk production in lactating dairy cattle to occur. However, very little dietary choline escapes ruminal degradation. Dietary supplemented choline is estimated to provide only 3 to 20 percent of actual requirements. Up to 98 percent of non-protected choline is degraded in the rumen.1 So without protection, the benefits of choline supplementation in dairy cattle are not realized. 

Commitment to Quality and Food Safety

Since earning the prestigious Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) recognition at its Des Moines, Iowa, manufacturing facility in February 2013, Kemin Industries has remained a leader in the production of safe, quality ingredients. The recognition reinforced the company's investment in human and financial capital to enhance existing conditions and processes, verifying its products are safe, efficient and effective until they reach the end consumer. Kemin has FSSC 22000 certification, recognized by GFSI, which is accepted by food manufacturers worldwide. 



1Santos, J. E. P., and F. S. Lima. 2009. Feeding rumen protected choline to transition dairy cows. Page 149 in proceedings of the Florida Nutrition Conference. Univ. Florida, Gainesville.

2Goselink, R. M. A., J. Van Baal, H. C. A. Widjaja, R. A. Dekker, R. L. G. Zom, M. J. De Veth, and A. M. Van Vuren. 2013. Effect of rumen protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 96:1102-1116.

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