Commercial citrus production is a growing industry. Grapefruit citrus frut organge juice sweet orange fresh market citrus grove
Commercial citrus fruit are produced in about 140 countries. The primary producers are Brazil, the Mediterranean Basin, the United States, and China. Citrus fruit ranks first internationally in trade value among all fruits (Norberg, 2008; UNCTAD, 2009).
Four states, Florida (68.7 percent), California (27.5 percent), Texas (2.7 percent), and Arizona (1.1 percent), produce virtually the entire US commercial citrus crop. Sweet oranges dominate Florida’s citrus production (83.6 percent) followed by grapefruit (12.6 percent) and specialty fruit consisting of mostly tangerines and tangelos. Florida produces very few lemons.
Florida grapefruit is grown predominately for fresh fruit but a considerable portion of the crop is processed for grapefruit juice as well. Florida is the largest US producer, commanding about two-thirds of the total. Florida produces about 30 percent of the world’s grapefruit with Mexico, Cuba, and Turkey contributing significantly to world production.
The Florida citrus industry is estimated to have a $9.3 billion economic impact for the state. Approximately 80,000 full-time equivalent jobs (grove employees, seasonal pickers, haulers, processors, packers, and managers) are involved, earning a combined annual wage of $2.7 billion or about 1.5 percent of the state’s wage income. Most of the fruit is harvested by hand although harvesting machines have been developed and are used for harvest of about 5 percent of the processing fruit.
Florida california Hop crop production can take the form of conventionally grown raw hops or organically grown hops. If growing high-quality hops is your goal, you will overcome a variety of challenges, including growing hops that are pest-resistant and achieving quality growth with a limited supply of nitrogen.5
Other challenges you may face can include fungi or bacteria like powdery mildew or fireblight, or insect-pests like two-spotted spider mites, which can quickly lay waste to your entire hop crop.6 Fortunately, Kemin provides high-quality solutions for growing hops successfully in all conditions and situations, particularly when it comes to the issue of devastating pests.
(also known as Huanglongbing or HLB) What causes citrus greening? Fungal and Bacterial pathogens are detrimental to hop performance
Plant diseases such as citrus canker have had a negative effect on citrus production and economics. The eradication program for citrus canker was responsible for the loss of 70,000 acres of groves, and the regulations on the movement of fruit from areas with the disease have greatly affected the ability of the state to market fresh fruit. Over the last 20 years, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) caused the decline and death of most trees on sour orange rootstock, which originally constituted 25–30 percent of the acreage in Florida, but most of that acreage was replanted gradually as trees were lost.
HLB is a destructive disease, and probably is the most serious disease of sweet orange, mandarin and grapefruit trees. It is destructive irrespective of rootstocks or whether the trees are grafted or are seedling trees. The yield of affected trees is not only reduced considerably by continuous fruit drop, dieback, and tree stunting, but also by the poor quality of fruits that remain on the trees.
The greatest immediate threat to both the processing and fresh fruit industries in Florida is the recently arrived disease known as citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB). Developing measures for combating HLB is the principal topic of this report. The insect vector of the HLB-associated bacterium in the Americas is the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), which was reported in Brazil in 1942, but was not reported in North America until it was found in 1998 in Florida. Although it cannot be known whether small, unetected populations of ACP predated discovery, it is clear that ACP was widely distributed by 2000, having been reported in 31 counties in the state, so that eradication was no longer conceivable. HLB is now present in all 34 Florida counties that have commercial citrus fruit production (FDACS-DPI, 2009), but is most prevalent in the southern areas of the state (Figure 2-5). The spread of HLB in Florida is considered to have occurred too rapidly to be accounted for by ACP flights,
Generally speaking, Florida’s sub-tropical climate and year round vegetation in and around citrus groves allows a larger number of generations of insects to be produced and leads to more frequent application of management practices, such as insecticides, than would be found in temperate areas. This situation has potential negative consequences for farm workers and the general environment. Accordingly, Florida also has cases of insect resistance to insecticides (Omoto et al., 1995). Although resistance may originate in one particular location due to the local management practices, such resistant insects may be able to move long distances.
many other diseases can produce serious problems with citrus production, may kill or completely debilitate trees and reduce production, but many foliar fungal and bacterial diseases may also reduce yield as well as blemish fruit.
insecticides for psyllid control.
foliar insecticides would be needed for psyllid control in the presence of HLB in addition to normal sprays for control of other pests and diseases. Such a program
Asian citrus psyllid has been identified as one of the key vectors in the spread of citrus greening. Controlling this pest can help manage the disease in your groves.
Start with our TetraCURB™ Concentrate solution for commercial growers. This is a rosemary oil-based contact miticide-insecticide treatment made from our proprietary lines of rosemary plants. It's an environmentally-friendly product with no phytotoxicity that is highly effective at killing or repelling mites and small, soft-bodied insects such as aphids and whiteflies. Our product is exempt from residue tolerances in the U.S. and is an ideal foundation for a quality integrated pest management program.
A powerful organic miticide-insecticide and repellent that controls small, soft-bodied insects and mite pests with a zero-day Pre-Harvest Interval. With a high concentration of active ingredients formulated with a unique blend of botanical oils, TetraCURB Organic is a new natural option for organic growers to help manage pest pressure throughout the growing seasons.
We are associate members of the Florida citrus associations:
Kemin Crop Technologies partners with Laboratoire M2, Inc. to distribute Thymox Control®. Read the announcement here. FIFRA 25(b) exempt pesticides: These products are exempt from registration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under FIFRA section 25(b) regulations. Kemin Industries, Inc. represents that this product qualifies for exemption from registration under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Intended for commercial use. Always read and follow the entire label direction before use. Use strictly in accordance with precautionary statements and direction. Contact your local extension specialist or certified crop advisors for any additional pesticide resistance management and IPM recommendations for the specific site and pest problems in your area. The products are not registered, or authorized for sale in all states. Consult your Kemin representative or your state regulatory representative for approval of this use in your state, specific applications and labeling.™Trademarks of Kemin Industries, Inc., USA. Thymox® is a registered trademark of Laboratoire M2.