Protein sources are often heat treated to increase the supply of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) but this can render proteins or amino acids undigestible or un-usable by the cow. Among the 10 essential amino acids, lysine is extremely vulnerable to being altered or destroyed during heating in what is known as a browning or Maillard reaction. When this Maillard reaction happens, the lysine you purchased is wasted. This makes it difficult to meet MP Lysine requirements, get the milk yield you expect and maximize your herd's production without overfeeding costly feed protein.
Just how variable are high RUP protein sources? Kemin Industries has tested over 70 blood meal samples using the In Vitro Nitrogen Indigestibility Assay (IVNIDA) developed by Ross et al. (2013). In this assay, nitrogen digestibility is used to evaluate the availability of the protein supplied by the blood meal. Additionally, intestinal availability of the lysine contained in the RUP (MP Lysine) is determined.
The MP Lysine supplied by blood meal varied from a high of 41 to a low of 1 gram/lb. Variation was high even when sourcing from a single supplier. The grey bars indicate samples collected from one feed mill over a period of one month. In this case, the amount of MP Lysine supplied varied from 27 to 10 g per pound. This level of variability makes it impossible to accurately formulate diets when using blood meal, resulting in missed expectations and lost profit.
Figure 1. MP Lysine supplied by 1.0 lb of blood meal.
This variability is not just found in blood meal. Lysine content can vary widely in canola meals as well (Rahmani et al., 2017). Soybean meal processing can also impact the supply of MP Lysine (Borucki Castro et al., 2007). While these ingredients supply valuable nutrients, relying on them to supply enough MP Lysine to meet your cows' needs may be a gamble.
USA LysineÂ® is a proven consistent, concentrated, cost-effective source of MP Lysine. Yielding over 200 grams of MP Lysine per pound1, it supplies over eight times more MP Lysine per pound than the average blood meal and twice as much as the nearest rumen protected lysine competitor.
To learn more about the impact variable protein sources can have on profitability, read about a study conducted at Cornell University or visit the Why Rumen Protected Lysine page on the USA Lysine website.
1Kemin Internal Document, 15-00008.
2Kemin Internal Document, 17-00019.
3Rahmani, M., A. Rogiewicz, and B. Slominski. 2017. Chemical Composition and Available Energy Contents of Canola Meal from Canadian Crushing Plants. Quebec City, Quebec. Pg. 224.
4Borucki Castro, S. I., L. Phillip, H. Lapierre, P. Jardon, and R. Berthiaume. 2007. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in treated soybean meal products. Journal of Dairy Science. 90:810-822.
5Ross, D. A. 2013. Development of an in vitro intestinal digestibility assay for ruminant feeds. Paper presented at the 2013 Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from ecommons.cornell.edu.