VANNIX™ C is a novel feed additive developed to help improve intestinal health and efficiency for producers. Uniquely, VANNIX C contains two functional ingredients:
VANNIX C utilizes the benefits of the two components to support overall intestinal health. TAE has consistently shown the ability to improve pathogen control at the intestinal barrier under inflammatory conditions.2 TAE has also been shown to reduce coccidiosis lesion scores, oocyst counts, morbidity and improve feed conversion.1,3
Species of gall wasps lay their eggs in the branches and twigs of oak trees. When the tree identifies an invasion by a possible parasite, a large knot (also known as a "Gallnut") is formed around the foreign body to isolate it and keep it from doing more damage. Tannic acid is created by the plant in the response mechanism.4
Tannic acid, a plant-derived molecule extracted from plant parts such as tara pods, gallnuts from Rhus semialata, Quercus infectoria or Sicilian Sumac leaves, is a polyphenol. Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds, secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens.5
Studies have indicated there are multiple modes of action in which tannic acid extract benefits the intestinal health of livestock and poultry. Those include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-pathogenic and astringent activities.5
Figure 1. Tannic acid molecule6
The astringent activity of tannic acid benefits intestinal health by positively impacting the small intestine. When delivered to the small intestine, tannic acid can contract the mucus membrane. Tannic acid can also constrict the capillaries, which can then prevent leakage.7
Tannic acid could be used as an anti-inflammatory solution for livestock and poultry. It may help control oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through modulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression, inhibiting inflammatory cytokines and redox balance.8,9,10
Pathogen control at the intestinal barrier from tannic acid are seen by the molecule acting directly on the organism to inactivate it and not allow for the pathogen to grow. This would indicate tannic acid could be used as part of a solution for coccidiosis. Studies also suggest anti-viral activity of tannins by not allowing the virus to attach to cells.11
Trans-epithelial resistance (TER) is a measurement of the electrical resistance exerted by the tight junction proteins in the epithelial cell membrane.
Figure 2. Intestinal epithelial cell culture model used to measure TER12
Figure 3. Effect of TAE on intestinal integrity with inflammatory challenge conditions (LPS)13
Tannic acid extract benefits intestinal health and integrity under inflammatory conditions. This study indicates tannic acid extract could be an effective anti-inflammatory solution for livestock and poultry.
The tannic acid benefits on intestinal health are numerous, but one of the most intriguing could be as a solution for coccidiosis.7 Tannic acid extract can be added for potential pathogen control at the intestinal barrier.
Figure 4. In vitro assay for reducing the viability of Eimeria tenella sporozites14
Figure 5. Disruption of the membrane of sporozites, reducing their viability15
In vitro well diffusion assay to show antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens strain CP2.14 P = chloramphenicol, TAE = tannic acid extract; BC + TAE = B. coagulans + TAE.
Figure 6. B. coagulans antimicrobial activity14
Bacillus coagulans (BC) has shown the ability to produce lactic and acetic acids for antimicrobial benefits16 and positive effects on immunity.17
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of tannic acid extract (TAE) on intestinal health alone or in combination with a direct-fed microbial, Bacillus coagulans (TAE + BC), to positively impact the performance of coccidiosis-vaccinated broilers. The trial measured vaccinated broiler performance from day 0 through day 49. On day 21, TAE, ionophore and a chemical improved weight gain compared to untreated control. Download the PDF to read more.
The aim of the present study tested the effect of tannic acid extract (TAE) alone or in combination with a direct-fed microbial, Bacillus coagulans (TAE + BC), on performance, intestinal health and pathogen control of coccidiosis-vaccinated broilers. Broilers were either unchallenged or challenged with late Eimeria infection. The study looked at performance and gut health during two time periods: vaccinated only (0 to 49 days) and late cocci challenge (vaccination + cocci challenge; 28 to 35 days). For more information, download the PDF.
1Kemin Internal Document, 16-00078.
2Kemin Internal Document, 16-00002.
3Tonda, R., J. Rubach, B. Lumpkins, G. Mathis, and M. Poss. 2016. Effects of tannic acid extract formulations on performance and intestinal health of Eimeria spp. challenged and coccidia-vaccinated broilers. 2016 Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting. New Orleans, LA. Abstract T280, p. 84.
4Dharmananda, S. 2003. Gallnuts and the uses of tannins in Chinese medicine. Institute for Traditional Medicine.
5Pandey, K. B., Rizvi. 2009. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxidative Med. and Cellular Longevity. 270-278.
7Kaleem, Q. M., M. Akhtar, M. M. Awais, M. Saleem, M. Zafar, Z. Iqbal, F. Muhammad, and M. I. Anwar. 2014. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The Scientific World Journal. 2014:378473-378483.
8Chung, K. T., T. Y. Wong, C. I. Wei, Y. W. Huang, and Y. Lin. 1998. Tannins and Human Health: A Review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 421-64.
9Hamiza, O. O., M. U. Rehman, M. Tahir, R. Khan, A. Q. Khan, A. Lateef, F. Ali, and S. Sultana. 2012. Amelioration of 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) Induced Colon Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Tumor Promotion Response by Tannic Acid in Wistar Rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 13:4393-4402.
10Franscisco, V., J. Liberal, J. Ferreira, et al., 2012. Immunostimulant activity of Uncaria tomentosa and its tannins. Planta Medica. 78:D9.
11Leandro M. Redondo, Pablo A. Chacana, Johana E. Dominguez, and Mariano E. Fernandez Miyakawa. Perspectives in the use of tannins as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry. Frontiers in Microbiology.
12Adapted from http://www.gentaurpromo.com/living_cells/images/preadyport111.jpg. Date Accessed, Nov. 8, 2016.
13Kemin Internal Document, 16-00002.
14Kemin Internal Document, 15-00033.
15Kemin Internal Document, 14-00032.
16Ou M. S., L. O. Ingram, and K. T. Shanmugam. 2011. Lactic acid production from non-food carbohydrates by thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38:599-605.
17Lin, S., S. Mao, Y. Guan, L. Luo, L. Luo, and Y. Pan. 2012. Effects of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides and B. coagulans on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi. Aquaculture. 36-41.
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