A field trial was conducted at a dairy in the Central Valley region of California. Approximately 500 cows in second or greater lactation in the high producing group (60-120 days in milk) were used in this study. The objective was to determine if chromium propionate had an added benefit to dairy cows in early to peak lactation.
Forty-eight (48) Holstein cows entering second or greater lactation were used to determine milk production, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolic responses to chromium propionate supplementation throughout the periparturient period and starch source in the postpartum diet. Supplementation of chromium propionate throughout the periparturient period positively affected production responses that were sustained after treatment application ceased. Differences among treatments for fat-corrected milk yield were consistent with the differences among treatments for DMI. The effects of treatment on milk yield appeared to precede effects on DMI, which may be due to increased glucose supply to the mammary gland.
Effect of chromium supplementation in lactating dairy cow diets on response in daily milk yield, lbs/h/d.
A study was conducted with sixty-one (61) multiparous Holstein cows to determine the effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on immunity and subclinical endometritis. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of chromium propionate supplementation to dairy cows during the periparturient period and early lactation on performance, metabolism, aspects of immune function and the incidence of cytological-diagnosed endometritis (CDE).
Dairy cows experience frequent immune challenges, as bacterial insults can originate from many different situations. Economic consequences of sickness are decreased milk, inefficient feed utilization, poor reproduction and increased health costs. An activated immune system requires energy in the form of glucose and the literature suggests glucose homeostasis is disrupted during an endotoxin challenge. The increased need by the immune system occurs in addition to decreased nutrient intake and thus, reduced intestinally derived carbohydrates. Consequently, there is a negative glucose balance that likely limits the immune response. The objective of the study was to use the quantity of glucose needed to maintain euglycemia (normal blood glucose level) during an immune challenge.
A field trial was conducted on an 800-cow Holstein dairy in southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the effect of chromium propionate on reproductive performance. An increase in pregnancy rate was observed that was driven by an increase in conception rates.
Effect of chromium supplementation in lactating dairy cow diets on response in daily milk yield and dry matter intake, lbs/h/d under heat stress conditions.
A field trial was conducted on a commercial, 800-cow Holstein dairy in southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the effect of chromium propionate on milk yield by 2nd lactation and greater cows under heat stress conditions. The results may suggest chromium propionate supplementation from -21 days pre-fresh through peak production to receive full benefit on milk yield and supplementation of chromium propionate through 150 days in milk will help maintain milk yield during periods of heat stress.
Learn more about heat stress management and strategies to help mitigate the effects of heat stress.
Heat stress can compromise a lactating cow's performance in many different ways, such as decreased feed intake, altered metabolism, reduced milk production, impaired reproductive performance and increased disease incidence. Chromium supplementation has been shown to improve energy utilization. A field trial was conducted with chromium propionate during one of the hottest summers on record. The cows in this trial herd were less severely impacted by negative energy balance in early lactation and were more fertile under the timed AI program.
Understanding the relationship between stress, immunity and reproductive herd health is paramount to discovering nutritional management best practices for your dairy herd. Chromium supplementation primarily acts to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the release of stress hormones, both of which enhance reproductive health–namely, uterine immune cell function and restoration of the ovarian cycle after calving. Ultimately, this improvement in overall herd reproductive health should contribute to lower veterinary/medical costs, lower discounts on cull cows at the packer, improved conception rates and more optimal milk production.
Ohio State researchers list the following nine trace minerals as being needed by dairy cattle: chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Chromium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism by stabilizing insulin receptors that allow glucose to enter the cell. Glucose is critical for milk lactose synthesis, an energy source for the immune system, as well as ovarian function, along with glucose as an energy source for normal body activity. Learn more about chromium effects on cow responses and the benefits of supplementing chromium on the dairy farm.
Learn about how the addition of chromium can enhance milk production, fertility, immunity and the producer's bottom line.
Supplemental chromium increases the sensitivity of body tissues, enhancing glucose uptake. Chromium reduces mobilization of body fat, consequently lowering blood nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels. By these mechanisms, supplemental chromium may improve dry matter intake and milk production in the early lactation cow.
Supplementation of dairy cattle diets with chromium propionate has considerable potential to improve glucose and NEFA metabolism, dry matter intake and milk yield, particularly in transition cows. Improvements in glucose and NEFA metabolism also have implications for better reproduction and reduced health incidences.
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