Based on the results of the IQVIA IMS National Disease and Therapeutic Index (NDTI) syndicated report among physicians who recommend a dietary supplement with lutein for eye health through between June 1, 2017 to May 31, 2018.
Roberts, Richard. “Methods of Treating Ocular Disorders.” Kemin Industries, Inc., assignee. Patent US9226940 B2. 5 Jan. 2016.
U.S. Food & Drug Administration, 2004. GRAS Notice Inventory, GRN No. 140, 221 and 390.
Bone RA, et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 29: 843-849, 1988.
Handelman GJ, et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 29: 850-855, 1988.
Oostenbrug GS, et al., Br J Nutr 80:67-73, 1998.
Yeum et al., J Am Coll Nutr 17: 442-447, 1998.
Walk A et al., From neuro-pigments to neural efficiency: The relationship between retinal carotenoids and behavioral and neuroelectric indices of cognitive control in childhood International Journal of Psychophysiology 118 (2017) 1–8.
Hassevoort K et al., Macular Carotenoids, Aerobic Fitness, and Central Adiposity Are Associated Differentially with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory in Preadolescent Children J Pediatr. 2017 Apr;183:108-11.
Barnett S et al., (2017) Macular pigment optical density is positively associated with academic performance among preadolescent children. Nutritional Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1329976.
Riddle D (2007) Brain aging: models, methods, and mechanisms. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.\
Hammond BR Jr. et al. (2017) Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin Supplementation on the Cognitive Function of Community Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Front. Aging Neurosci. 9:254.
Lindbergh, et al. (2017) Lutein and Zeaxanthin Influence Brain Function in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 23, 1–14. 2.
Johnson, E.J., et al., Cognitive findings of an exploratory trial of docosahexaenoic acid and lutein supplementation in older women. Nutr Neurosci, 2008. 11(2): p. 75-83.
Bovier, E.R., L.M. Renzi, and B.R. Hammond, A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on neural processing speed and efficiency. PLoS One, 2014. 9(9): p. e108178.
Bovier, E.R. and B.R. Hammond, A randomized placebo-controlled study on the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on visual processing speed in young healthy subjects. Arch Biochem Biophys, 2015. 572: p. 54-57.
Lindbergh, C.A., et al., Lutein and Zeaxanthin Influence Brain Function in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 2018. 24(1): p. 77-90.
Lindbergh, C.A., et al., The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on resting state functional connectivity in older Caucasian adults: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Imaging Behav, 2019.
Renzi-Hammond, L.M., et al., Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults. Nutrients, 2017. 9(11).
Hammond, B.R., Jr., et al., Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin Supplementation on the Cognitive Function of Community Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Front Aging Neurosci, 2017. 9: p. 254.
Ceravolo, S.A., et al., Dietary Carotenoids Lutein and Zeaxanthin Change Brain Activation in Older Adult Participants: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Mol Nutr Food Res, 2019: p. e1801051.