CLOSTAT® contains a proprietary, patented strain of Bacillus subtilis PB6. PB6 is a unique, naturally occurring, spore-forming microorganism, which Kemin has identified and selected as an active substance that helps maintain the balance of microflora in the intestinal tract of livestock.
Bacillus subtilis PB6 secretes molecules that are inhibitory toward various strains of bacteria including Clostridium, Salmonella and E. coli spp1 (Figure 1). In vitro studies have shown that PB6 is efficacious in inhibiting bacterial growth, such as Clostridium, in swine, poultry, cattle and equine.1,2 Inhibition or reduction of bacterial growth can decrease the animal's overall susceptibility to primary and secondary intestinal challenges that can affect overall production efficiency.
Figure 1. Pathogen cell wall disruption.
A research trial conducted with the United States Department of Agriculture at the Livestock Issues Research Unit in Lubbock, TX, evaluated the potential for CLOSTAT, a patented strain of Bacillus subtilis active microbial, to reduce the severity of salmonellosis in weaned Holstein steers challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.2 Calves were fed either control diets (no CLOSTAT) or 13 g/h/d CLOSTAT in a starter ration for 35 days. Calves were then assigned to one of four treatments consisting of CLOSTAT or no CLOSTAT and Salmonella (1.6 x 106 Salmonella typhimurium) or no Salmonella. The CLOSTAT calves displayed decreased rectal temperatures (P < 0.001) after the study compared to the control calves challenged with Salmonella.
Mounting an immune response to a pathogen challenge requires a significant amount of energy. It has been estimated that an increase in core body temperature by 1°C requires an increase of 10-13 percent in an animal’s metabolic rate.3 Mediating this change in body temperature would potentially spare glucose, allowing energy to be put towards other productive functions.
CLOSTAT® contains a proprietary, patented strain of Bacillus subtilis PB6. PB6 is a unique, naturally occurring, spore-forming microorganism. Kemin has identified and selected PB6 as an active substance that helps maintain the balance of microflora in the intestinal tract of livestock. To learn more, click below.
Research in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the Livestock Issues Research Unit in Lubbock, TX, evaluated the potential for CLOSTAT®, a patented strain of Bacillus subtilis active microbial, to reduce the severity of salmonellosis in weaned Holstein steers challenged with Salmonella typhimurium. Calves were fed either control diets (no CLOSTAT) or 13 g/h/d CLOSTAT in a starter ration for 35 days. Calves were then assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, consisting of CLOSTAT or no CLOSTAT (controll) and Salmonella (1.6 x 106 Salmonella typhimurium) or no Salmonella. To learn more, click below.
Salmonella Heidelberg, Cerro and Uganda are associated with disease and mortality in dairy cattle with each shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. The reduction in the use of antibiotics worldwide compels producers to look at alternative interventions to maintain not only the health of the animal, but to provide safe food for the world's population. The use of direct-fed microbial (DFM) products is one alternative currently being used. While in vitro assays cannot mimic in vitro conditions, the work reported here demonstrated that the metabolites secreted by Bacillus subtilis PB6 have the ability to inhibit the growth of these pathogens and may be a viable alternative to antibiotic use.
Due to customer demands, producers have been asked to change the way they raise production animals. In order to maintain feed efficiency, growth rate and production standards, producers now seek to better understand the factors contributing to gut health.
The gastrointestinal tract, or gut, was historically considered an organ equipped solely for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, recent data have shown that the gut acts in concert with the brain and peripheral organs and is capable of adapting in response to substantial changes in its environment. Understanding the interactions between the interrelated components of the gut is what cumulatively makes the gut the basis for the health and productivity of beef and dairy cattle.
Dr. Rand Broadway is a research scientist with the USDA-ARS, Livestock Issues Research Unit in Lubbock, TX. Currently, his program focuses on non-pharmaceutical supplements to mitigate the negative effects of diseases such as salmonellosis and Bovine Respiratory Disease. Simultaneously, his research aims to identify pathogen colonization, migration and translocation patterns to enhance food safety, growth and carcass performance. Dr. Rand received a B.S. in Biochemistry and a M.S. in Food Science and Technology (2011) from Mississippi State University. He received his Ph.D. from the Department of Animal and Food Sciences at Texas Tech University. Here to share his presentation titled, "Impact of Clostridia and Salmonella on Ruminant Health," is Dr. Broadway.
Dr. Mike Ballou is an Associate Dean for Research, an Associate Professor of Nutritional Immunology in the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources and the interim chair for the Department of Veterinary Sciences at Texas Tech University. The focus of his research is to determine how nutrition and management influence the health and performance of dairy calves, heifers and periparturient cows. Dr. Ballou received a Bachelor of Science degree in Animal Science from the University of California, Davis, where he remained to complete a PhD in Nutritional Biology with an emphasis in Immunology. In his presentation “My Calves and Heifers Look Good, What does that really Mean,” Dr. Ballou will discuss how we monitor and record benchmarks for herd success and how we use those benchmarks to adjust management strategy.
Dr. Carroll, is a Research Physiologist with the USDA, where leads a team working to develop management practices and alternative production systems to enhance animal well-being. In addition, his team is actively addressing methods to mitigate adverse effects of stress and develop alternatives to antimicrobials to enhance health and wellbeing of growing pigs and calves. Dr. Carroll completed his Bachelor of Science degree in Animal Science and his Master of Science and PhD in Physiology of Reproduction from Texas A&M University. Currently, he is the Research Leader for the USDA ARS Livestock Issues Research Unit in Lubbock, Texas. In his presentation “Cattle Health: It’s Complicated!”, Dr. Carroll will challenge our thinking on current management practices and review potential alternative ways of managing cattle.
1Yeow-Lim Teo, ALex, and Tan, Hai-Meng. 2005. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. p.4185-4190.
2Broadway, P. R. 2017. CLOSTAT® Reduces the Negative Impacts of a Salmonella Challenge in Weaned Holstein Steers. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl 1), 2017. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bioscience Research Lab, Agricultural Research Service, Lubbock, TX, under agreement No. KANA6344-16. Any opinions, findings, conclusion, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
3Kluger, M. J., and B. A. Rothenburg. 1979. Fever and reduced iron: Their interaction as a host defense response to bacterial infection. Science. 203(4378):374-376.
4U.S. Patent 7,247,499.
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