Insulin plays a key role in optimum cell function by acting as a "key" in the lock to the door that allows glucose into the cell. Once insulin has "unlocked the door," blood glucose can enter the cell and be used as an energy source. Chromium improves insulin function and results in efficient clearance of glucose from the bloodstream.1
Upon activation, immune cells become obligate glucose utilizers.3 Increased glucose uptake may help animals mount an immune response even under a severe immune challenge–such as heat stress.
Research studies, designed to test the effect of chromium on milk yield under heat stress conditions, have shown cows supplemented with chromium have increased dry matter intake and yield more milk than control cows.4
Chromium supplementation has been shown to improve energy utilization and reduce the impact of negative energy balance in early lactation.2
Chromium supplementation has been shown to reduce insulin resistance in dairy cows in early lactation.2 Studies with chromium have also shown its ability to reduce subclinical metritis,5 improve conception rates and pregnancy rates,6 reduce days to first service, and increase the number of viable oocytes in cows supplemented with high-energy diets.7
Chromium has been shown to alter insulin action and either increase dry matter intake, or minimize a drop of feed intake among animals subject to stress.8,9,10
The dietary trace element, chromium, is necessary to optimize the activation of the insulin receptor so more glucose can get into the cell. Adding supplemental KemTRACE® Chromium to the diet provides the additional chromium for insulin receptor activation. Chromium enhances this reaction, causing glucose transporter activation, allowing additional glucose to enter the cell. The additional glucose will allow for more energy to be available for proper cell function.
KemTRACE® Chromium – the first product of its kind on the market – is a safe, proven trace mineral for use in swine, dairy, beef and broiler operations. This highly bioavailable, organic source of chromium helps improve glucose utilization for increased cellular energy and function. This results in better animal maintenance, reproduction, growth and immunity.
The dietary trace element, chromium, is necessary to optimize the activation of the insulin receptor so more glucose can get into the cell. Adding supplemental KemTRACE® Chromium to the diet provides the additional chromium for insulin receptor activation.
A field trial was conducted on an 800-cow Holstein dairy in southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the effect of chromium propionate on reproductive performance. An increase in pregnancy rate was observed that was driven by an increase in conception rates.
Chromium has been shown to impact energy metabolism of dairy cattle during the transition and early lactation period resulting in greater milk yield, improved immune function or better reproductive efficiency. The objective of this field demonstration was to evaluate the effect of chromium supplementation on performance of Canadian dairy cattle.
Worldwide, the poor reproductive performance of dairy herds has become a major concern, especially in Holstein herds. Decline in conception rate and increase in calving interval over the last decades have been confirmed by several studies. Infertility is the number one reason for culling dairy cows in the U.S., and it is estimated to cost the U.S. dairy industry half-a-billion dollars annually. Learn how chromium can impact performance and ultimately provide a positive return on investment.
Understanding the relationship between stress, immunity and reproductive herd health is paramount to discovering nutritional management best practices for your dairy herd. Chromium supplementation primarily acts to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the release of stress hormones, both of which enhance reproductive health.
Ohio State researchers list the following nine trace minerals as being needed by dairy cattle: chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Chromium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism by stabilizing insulin receptors that allow glucose to enter the cell.
Supplementation of dairy cattle diets with chromium propionate has considerable potential to improve glucose and NEFA metabolism, dry matter intake and milk yield, particularly in transition cows. Improvements in glucose and NEFA metabolism also have implications for better reproduction and reduced health incidences.
1Mertz, W. 1992. Chromium: History and nutritional importance. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 32:3-8.
2Hayirli et al., 2001. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1218-1230.
3Palsson-McDermott, E. M., and L. A. O'Neill. 2013. BioEssays. 35:965-973.
4Kemin Internal Document, 15-00066.
5Yasui, T., et al., 2014. J. Dairy Sci. 97:1-11.
6Ferguson et al., 2013. J. Dairy Sci. 96(E-Supplement):127.
7Leiva, T., R. F. Cooke, A. P. Brandão, A. C. Aboin, J. Ranches, and J. L. M. Vasconcelos. 2015. Livest. Sci. 180:121-128.
8Y. Al-Saiady, M. & Alishaikh, Mohammed & Al-Mufarrej, Saud & A. Al-Showeimi, T. & Mogawer, Hassan Hosny & Dirrar, A. (2004). Animal Feed Science and Technology - ANIM FEED SCI TECH. 117:223-233. 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.07.008.
9An-Qiang, L., W. Zhi-Sheng, and Z. An-Gup. 2009. Pak. J. Nutr. 8:940-945.
10Vargas-Rodriguez, C. F., K. Yuan, E. C. Titgemeyer, L. K. Mamedova, K. E. Griswold, and B. J. Bradford. 2014. J. Dairy Sci. 97:3815-3821.
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