a cost effective source of rumen escape and intestinally available choline for use in ruminant diets.


CholiPEARL® is a cost effective source of rumen escape and intestinally available choline for use in ruminant diets. Providing intestinally available, supplemental choline has shown to improve energy balance.1

CholiPEARL is manufactured using the MicroPEARLS® spray freezing process. This manufacturing method results in a product that combines rumen protection with high intestinal digestibility, delivering a cost effective source of choline to dairy cows. Additionally, CholiPEARL is durable and can handle mixing and pelleting with no negative impact on product efficacy.

Why is Choline Important in Dairy Nutrition?

One of the primary roles of choline is the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an essential component of cell membranes.2 In addition, phosphatidylcholine is required for the synthesis and secretion of molecules known as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the liver. VLDL are important molecules necessary to avoid fat accumulation in the liver.3 Therefore, choline status is a key factor in alleviating the severity and incidence of fatty liver and may have some application in the transition dairy cow.

Kemin PEARL technology

Figure 1. MicroPEARL

When Should Rumen-Protected Choline be Fed?

During the transition period, dairy cows are under stress due to negative energy balance. As a result, body fats are mobilized to supply required energy to the body. Once body fats are transformed into VLDL in the liver, different body tissues can readily absorb the energy.

Due to the role of choline in VLDL secretion, the recommended period for rumen-protected choline application is during the transition period, 3 weeks before and up to 3 months after calving. 

Why Should We Protect Choline?

There is a need for choline for normal tissue metabolism and milk production in lactating dairy cattle to occur. However, very little dietary choline escapes ruminal degradation. Dietary supplement is estimated to provide only 3 to 30% of actual requirements.2

Non-Protected choline is degraded in the rumen up to 98%.2



  1. Zom, R.L.G., van Baal, J., Goselink, R.M.A., Bakker, J.A., de Veth, M.J., van Vuuren, A.M. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 2011; 94, 4016-4027.
  2. Santos, J.E.P., and Lima, F.S. 2009. Feeding rumen protected choline to transistion dairy cows. Pages 149 in proceedings of the Florida Nutrition Conference. Univ. Florida, Gainsville.
  3. Goselink, R.M.A., van Baal, J., Widjaja, H.C.A., Dekker, R.A., Zom, R.L.G., de Veth, M.J., van Vuren, A.M. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 2013; 96, 1102-1116.

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