What is Chromium Propionate?
Chromium propionate is an essential trace mineral that has been proven safe and effective as an animal feed additive for more than two decades. KemTRACE Chromium is a highly bioavailable, organic source of chromium for inclusion into swine and dairy cattle diets. KemTRACE Chromium has helped customers increase production and profitability in the swine and dairy industries. It works to optimize glucose utilization, which can result in better animal maintenance, reproduction, growth, and immunity. KemTRACE Chromium, fed to millions of animals around the world since its introduction in 2000, is registered in more than 30 countries.
|Species||Feeding Period||Feeding Rate
(Not to Exceed)
|Swine||Gestation/lactation, nursery, and grow-finish||200 ppb|
|Dairy||Pre-fresh through late lactation||500 ppb|
Chromium in Swine
Chromium mobilizes more blood glucose into tissue, allowing for improved performance based on each individual animal's hierarchy of needs. In sows, chromium supplementation can result in fewer non-productive sow days, greater feed intake during lactation, improved body conditioning and increased high-quality milk that results in larger weaned pigs.1,2 A larger weaned pig will become a higher performing animal for the rest of the life cycle.3 Improved performance extends beyond sows and nursery into grow-finish pigs. An increase in average daily gain and decrease in feed conversion helps grow-finish pigs reach their optimal genetic potential while keeping producers profitable.4,5,6
Chromium in Dairy Cattle
The dietary trace element, chromium, is necessary to optimize the activation of the insulin receptor so that more glucose can get into the cell. Adding supplemental KemTRACE Chromium to the diet provides the additional chromium fo rinsulin receptor activation. Chromium enhances this reaction, causing glucose transporter activation, allowing additional glucose to enter the cow cell. Glucose is critical for milk lactose synthesis, an energy source for the immune system, and ovarian function, along with glucose as an energy source for normal body activity. Optimized glucose utilization can result in better animal maintenance, production, reproduction, growth, and immunity.
If insulin receptors are not functioning correctly, a condition referred to as insulin resistance can impact the cow. The additional glucose will allow for more energy to be available for proper cell function. Researchers report insulin resistance can occur in close-up dry cows, early lactation, and mid-lactation cows, compared to late-lactation cows and far-off dry cows. The findings also suggest chromium can enhance or improve milk yield, reproduction, immune response and heat stress, compared to cows not supplemented with chromium.7,8,9,10,11,12,13
Evaluation of Chromium Propionate on Reproductive Performance of Holstein Cows
Effects of Chromium Propionate Supplementation on Immunity and Subclinical Endometritis in Dairy Cows during the Periparturient Period
Evaluation of Chromium Propionate on Milk Production of Holstein Cows Under Heat Stress Conditions
An Update on Chromium
1Sohn, K. S., and C. V. Maxwell. 1999. New Technologies for Sow Nutrition and Management: A Review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:956-965.
2Hagen, C. D., M. D. Lindemann, and K. W. Purser. 2000. Effect of dietary chromium tripicolinate on productivity of sows under commercial conditions. Swine Health Prod. 8:59-63.
3Collins, C. L., J. R. Pluske, R. S. Morrison, T. N. McDonald, R. J. Smits, D. J. Henman, I. Stensland, and F. R. Dunshea. 2016. Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning. Anim. Nutr. 3:372-379.
4Lawrence, B. V., D. Overend, S. A. Hansen, J. D. Hahn, and R. Ogaard. 2004. Chromium propionate influence on pig performance and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 82(suppl):143.
5Mayorga, E. J., S. K. Stoakes, J. T. Seibert, E. A. Horst, M. Abuajamieh, S. Lei, L. Ochoa, B. Kremer, and L. H. Baumgard. 2016. Effects of dietary chromium propionate during heat stress on finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(2):139.
6Gebhardt, J. T., H. S. Cemin, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, J. M. DeRoughey, J. A. Loughmiller, and R. D. Goodband. 2017. Effects of KemTRACE Chromium level and feeding regimen on finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 95(suppl):275.
7Horst, E. A., S. K. Kvidera, E. J. Mayorga, C. S. Shouse, M. Al-Qaisi, M. J. Dickson, J. A. Ydstie, H. A. Ramirez, K. E. Griswold, and L. H. Baumgard. 2017. Effects of dietary chromium on circulating energetic metabolites and leukocyte patterns following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in lactating cows. Abstract 337. J. Dairy Sci. 100(2):361.
8Spears, J. W., and W. P. Weiss. 2008. Role of antioxidants and trace elements in health and immunity of transition dairy cows. Vet J. 176:70-76.
9Yuan, K., C. F. Vargas-Rodriguez, L. K. Mamedova, M. B. Muckey, M. A. Vaughn, D. D. Burnet, J. M. Gonzalez, E. C. Titgemeyer, K. E. Griswold, and B. J. Bradford. 2014. Effects of supplemental chromium propionate and rumen-protected amino acids on nutrient metabolism, neutrophol activation, and adipocyte size in dairy cows during peak lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 97:3822-3831.
10Bryan, M. A., M. T. Socha, and D. J. Tomlinson. 2004. Supplementing intensively grazed late-gestation and early-lactation dairy cattle with chromium. J. Dairy Sci. 87:4269-4277.
11Lavín-Garza, B., A. Garza, M. Daccarett, F. R. Valdez, C. A. Meza-Herrera, and R. Rodríguez-Martínez. 2007. Milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein cows supplemented with chromium in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 90(1):359.
12Al-Saiadi, M. Y., M. A. Al-Shaikh, S. I. Al-Mofarrei, T. A. Al-Showeimi, H. H. Mogawer, and A. Dirrar. 2004. Effect of chelated chromium supplementation on lactation performance and blood parameters of Holstein cows under heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 117:223-233.
13Mirzaei, M., G. R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, H. R. Rahmani, and A. Nikkhah. 2010. Chromium improves production and alters metabolism of early lactation cows in summer. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 85:81-89.