Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne disease in humans throughout the world and has a significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and economic loss.
Animals can become infected with Salmonella from contaminated feed and the environment.
It is crucial to effectively control Salmonella contamination as early as possible in the feed chain by reducing the contamination of feed raw materials.
Processing of oil seeds generates a lot of dust and heat. Dusty, warm, and humid conditions in the extraction plant are very suitable, not only for Salmonella survival, but also for the rapid multiplication of Salmonella.
Imported oilseed meal and fish meal are frequent sources of contamination.
Contamination of compound feed by Salmonella is not uncommon even in feed that has undergone heat treatment. Re-contamination after heat treatment, therefore, occurs as the heat treatment has no residual effect. Feed is a major source of pathogen contamination in the feed chain.
The presence of Salmonella in animal populations is considered a risk factor for the presence of Salmonella in meat and eggs. The basis for successful control of Salmonella infections in animal farms is good farming and hygiene practice, as well as regular testing and treating positive flocks. Interventions to keep a low prevalence of Salmonella is critical.
Major sources of Salmonella contamination in the environment are cooling air, dust, equipment, condensation, wild birds, and rodents. Persistent environmental contamination has been shown to be a major factor in the infection of feed and flocks.
All vehicles used for the transport of incoming raw materials and compound feeds must be subjected to regular cleaning and sanitizing programs, ensuring they are in a hygienic state.
Condensation, wild birds, and rodents produce an environment capable of supporting growth of Salmonella. For this reason, effective control measures are important to prevent contamination.
Surveys of the prevalence in the feed chain have shown high Salmonella prevalence detected in dust samples from the pre-heat and post-heat areas of the mill, as well as inside the pellet cooling systems.
The farm environment can re-contaminate feed, water, and animals. Biosecurity programs that deal with multiple threats should be implemented.
The slaughter process has an impact on the risk of carcass contamination. Salmonella may be transferred to carcasses during processing from certain sources. The most important is infection in the batch of animals being slaughtered. The second source of contamination is between a positive batch of animals and subsequent carcasses from negative batches (cross-contamination).
Salmonella is a leading cause of food-borne diseases in humans in Africa and throughout the world and has a significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. Salmonellosis infection can range from mild to severe gastroenteritis, and in some people, lead to an invasive disease that can be fatal. Long-term consequences such as reactive arthritis can also result from Salmonella infections.
The application of SalCURB to combat bacterial pathogens in animal feeds is a well-established practice worldwide. SalCURB involves interventions in extraction and rendering plants, feed mills, storage facilities, farms, transport vehicles, and/or equipment.
Treatment of feed ingredients and compound feed with Sal CURB is effective in controlling contamination by Salmonella spp. and other pathogenic organisms. Sal CURB reduces the counts of Salmonella and prevents re-contamination, providing a long lasting protection from microbial growth. Consequently, it will reduce the number of human cases of salmonellosis.
Customer support services are provided with the use of SalCURB, including:
The Sal CURB Dry product are ideally suited for use with the Kemin Duster Applicator for cleaning purposes as part of a feed hygiene program
The Sal CURB liquid products are ideally suited to be applied through the Kemin application technology for optimal dispersion in feed and feed raw material
Animal feed stands at the beginning of the food safety chain. Feed raw materials and final feed are susceptible to microbiological contamination with Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella species. Feed contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella can lead to a subsequent contamination of the animal carcasses which may cause human food-borne infections. With stringent regulations on feed and food hygiene the contamination of feed and food with Salmonella must be controlled.
A combination of heat and pressure in the pelleting process with organic acids will accelerate the reduction of Enterobacteriaceae in the feed. When no organic acids are present in the feed, there is no residual effect against subsequent recontamination.
The application of a mixture of organic acids as in Sal CURB is a solution to avoid the recontamination of the feed with Salmonella and Enterobacteriaceae.
The total Enterobacteriaceae contamination of feed can be used as a marker for the microbiological quality of the feed. Salmonella belongs to the group Enterobacteriaceae, and analysis of the total Enterobacteriaceae contamination of feed will give information on the susceptibility of the feed to be contaminated with Salmonella.
The aim is therefore to investigate the effect of the antimicrobial product Sal CURB to control the total Enterobacteriaceae contamination in mash feed.
Mash feed samples were collected from all over Europe and analysed for their microbiological quality in the Kemin Animal Health and Nutrition Customer Service Laboratory in Europe. A distinction between mash feed samples not treated with an antimicrobial (Control) and mash feed samples treated with Sal CURB was noted. Sal CURB was applied under field conditions in accordance with the recommended application level.
In this study more than 850 samples were analysed, of this, approximately 330 were control samples and more than 530 samples were treated with Sal CURB.
The total Enterobacteriaceae contamination of the samples was expressed as colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). The lowest to highest bacterial count determined was from 100 (2 log) to 10,000,000 cfu/g (7 log).
For interpretation of the degree of Enterobacteriaceae contamination the samples were distributed into different classes according to their log cycles contamination. A percentile distribution of the number of samples present in each log class is presented.
The total Enterobacteriaceae distribution of the control and treated Sal CURB mash feed is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Distribution of the total Enterobacteriaceae contamination between Sal CURB and untreated mash feed samples
The control group has a higher total Enterobacteriaceae contamination compared to the Sal CURB treated mash feed, and represents a normal distribution of the curve. The largest fraction of mash feed samples analysed had a total Enterobacteriaceae contamination of 3-5 log. Approximately 20 to 25% had less than 3 log (1 000 cfu/g) and 20% above log 5.
Sal CURB treated feed had a lower total Enterobacteriaceae contamination, with 65% of the samples less than 1 000 cfu/g (log 3). Only a small fraction of the mash feed samples treated with Sal CURB had a total Enterobacteriaceae contamination above log 4.
The total average Enterobacteriaceae contamination is shown in Figure 2. Sal CURB treated feed samples had an average Enterobacteriaceae contamination of 2.5 log compared to the control of 3.8 log. This indicates that, on average, Sal CURB lowers the total Enterobacteriaceae contamination with 1.3 logs or by more than 95%. The balanced mixture of organic acids in Sal CURB is effective to reduce the total Enterobacteriaceae contamination of mash feed. Enterobacteriaceae contamination is correlated to the risk of Salmonella, reducing the Enterobacteriaceae counts, the incidence of a Salmonella contamination is reduced as well.
Figure 2. Average total Enterobacteriaceae contamination between Sal CURB and untreated mash feed samples.
Sal CURB lowered the total Enterobacteriaceae level in mash feed from 6 310 to 316 cfu/g. Application of Sal CURB in mash feed reduces 95% of the total Enterobacteriaceae count. Sal CURB plays an essential role to control the microbiological contamination of feed and to guarantee optimal feed and food safety.
Certain statements may not be applicable in all geographical regions. Product labeling and associated claims may differ based upon regulatory requirements.