ENDOX® - Preserving Feed Quality

Benefits of Antioxidants for Animal Feed Quality—What's Oxidation Costing You?

Rancid fat means quality has been compromised, but what does that mean to your bottom-line? Oxidized fat may:

  • Destroy fat-soluble vitamins
  • Reduce the digestibility of fat
  • Reduce palatability and feed consumption through the production of aldehydes during the oxidative process
  • Increase exposure to toxic compounds, which may reduce productivity
  • Reduce energy content available in the feed
  • Increase exposure to free radicals, which may lead to internal oxidative stress concerns
  • Negatively impact gut health, which can lead to future immunity challenges

Fat Quality Solutions

To protect your finished feed from the negative effects oxidation has on feed quality, an antioxidant system should be used. Antioxidants for livestock and poultry feed help stabilize fat and maintain feed quality by delaying oxidation. Antioxidants accomplish this by sacrificing themselves to quench the free radicals before the fat or vitamin molecules can be attacked. Fat longevity solutions, for the best efficacy and protection, should include an antioxidant system containing a combination of the following:

  • Synergistic blend of antioxidants to absorb free radicals before they destroy fatty acids
  • Metal chelators to bind metal ions, which may promote free radical oxidation
  • Oil-based carriers to provide a homogeneous mix into the feed matrix

The Kemin fat quality solution is an antioxidant systems approach, which provides the best blend of antioxidants specifically formulated for the protection of your feeds and fats.

Manage Vitamin Cost Through Preservation

Involved in over 30 metabolic reactions, vitamins are essential for animal growth, health, reproduction, and performance.1 The susceptibility of destruction to different vitamins can vary considerably. Factors affecting vitamin stability include temperature, oxygen, light, catalysts and time, to name a few. 

Premix composition, including the presence of inorganic trace minerals such as Fe, Cu, etc., can have an aggressive effect on vitamin degradation. Vitamin A, one of the least stable vitamins, and Vitamin E are both strongly impacted by several environmental factors.

Table 1. External factors influencing vitamin stability.2

Vitamin Temperature Oxygen Humidity Light
E X 0 X X
Thiamin (B1) X X X X
Riboflavin (B2) 0 0 X X
Pyridoxine (B6) XX 0 X X
B12 X X X 0
Calcium pantothenate X 0 X 0
Nicotinic acid 0 0 0 0
Biotin 0 0 X X
Folic acid XX 0 X XX
C 0 XX XX 0
0 = Stable; X = Slightly Sensitive to Sensitive; XX = Very Sensitive

In one month's time, vitamin retention in feed typically decreases 2-4%. However, this loss can be higher depending on the vitamin product form or relative humidity. 


Figure 1. Stability of two Vitamin A sources in a concentrated premix depending on storage time and relative humidity (RH). 3

Preserve Your Vitamins with ENDOX®—Antioxidants for Animal Feed

Preservation of vitamins in the feed matrix can be accomplished through the addition of an antioxidant. For the best vitamin protection, an antioxidant system, which includes a blend of oxygen and free radical scavenging antioxidants and metal chelators, should be used. Traditional antioxidants for livestock feed included only single dry antioxidants, which only concentrate on the free radicals and do not inlcude oxygen scavengers or metal chelators.

Improve vitamin A retention within your vitamin/mineral premix with ENDOX. A study comparing the efficacy of ENDOX (125 ppm) at retaining Vitamin A in a vitamin/mineral premix showed ENDOX retained 30% more Vitamin A as compared to the untreated vitamin/mineral premix.

Table 2. Vitamin A loss as effected by antioxidants.4

Time (Days) Control ENDOX®
60 52% 28%
90 64% 34%

Incorporating ENDOX in your premix helps:

  • Safe-guard fat soluble vitamins against degredation
  • Protect complete feeds from fat oxidation and vitamin loss
  • Reduce energy loss due to oxidation of fat in feed
  • Protect gut health by limiting toxic compounds created through oxidation

Why Are ENDOX Products the Products of Choice?

ENDOX is a combination of an inert carrier that has been coated with a synergistic blend of synthetic antioxidants and phosphoric acid. In addition, mono and diglycerides were added to act as surfactants within the antioxidant system. This combination provides adequate distribution of the active components throughout your feed mixture. 

Protect Your Investment5

Cracked corn   3.1
Milo flake   8.0
Ensiled corn   3.5
Finisher supplement   22.9
Starter supplement   12.1
Wheat flakes   6.2
Fat sample 1   1.0
Fat sample 2   2.4
High fat feed Fresh 6.9
High fat feed Fresh 15.2
High fat feed Unknown 47.3
High fat feed Unknown 26.0
Intermediate fat feed Unknown 15.4
Intermediate fat feed Unknown 12.2
High fat feed Old 90.2
High fat feed Old 68.5
Sick pen feed Unknown 60.0

The data indicates there was not a significant peroxide problem in any of the individual ingredients with the exception of the supplement. It is especially noteworthy that the fat was of good quality. When the ingredients were combined, oxidation began immediately. Further data, not shown, indicated the problem increased exponentially when the feed was actually placed in the feed bunk. 


1Marks, J. 1979. A guide to the vitamins: Their role in health and disease. Published by MTP, Medical and Technical Publishing Co., Ltd., England.

2Gadient, M. 1986. Effect of pelleting on nutritional quality of feed. In Maryland Nutrition Conference Proceedings, College Park, MD. P. 73.

3https://www.dsm.com/markets/anh/en_US/Compendium/vitamin_basics/vitamin_.... Accessed on December 1, 2017.

4Kemin Internal Document, 03-00318.

5Kemin Internal Document, 03-00200.